Test Anxiety – Grounding Exercises

Hi all,

One of my favorite “go to” sites for continuing education as a therapist is Emma McAdam’s Therapy in a Nutshell on Youtube. The link below provides some grounding exercises for anxiety. If you are vulnerable to test anxiety, the key is NOT to wait until the day of your exam to breath deeply. Starting now will help your parsympathetic nervous system develop the sense of calm that will assist in your anxiety on test day. Emma McAdam has many many videos on anxiety. WARNING – Do not watch them all. It is easy to avoid studying with Youtube surfing. They will all be there after the test. Here is a three minute clip on Grounding Exercises you might want to try. Click below on Therapy in a Nutshell- Emma McAdams

Therapy in a Nutshell, Emma McAdams

Social and Cultural Foundations Questions- Rosenthal 1-16

1. Culture refers to
a. customs shared by a group which distinguish it from other
b. values shared by a group that are learned from others in
the group.
c. attitudes, beliefs, art, and language which characterize
members of a group.
d. all of the above

2. Our culture is more diverse than in the past. Multicultural counselors often work with persons who are culturally different. This
means the client
a. is culturally biased.
b. suffers from the diagnosis of cultural relativity.
c. belongs to a different culture from the helper.
d. presents problems which deal only with culturally charged

3. In order to diagnose clients from a different culture
a. the counselor ideally will need some information regarding the specifics of the culture.
b. the counselor will fi nd the DSM useless.
c. the counselor will fi nd the ICD diagnosis useless.
d. NBCC ethics prohibit the use of DSM diagnosis when
counseling clients from another culture.

4. In the United States, each socioeconomic group represents
a. a separate race.
b. a separate culture.
c. the silent middle class.
d. a separate national culture.

5. Which therapist was not instrumental in the early years of the
social psychology movement?
a. Freud
b. Durkheim
c. McDougall
d. Berne

6. _______ and _______ would say that regardless of culture,
humans have an instinct to fight.
a. Maslow; Rogers
b. Ellis; Harper
c. Freud; Lorenz
d. Glasser; Rogers

7. _______ believe that aggression is learned. Thus, a child who
witnesses aggressive behavior in adults may imitate the aggressive behavior.
a. Instinct theorists
b. Innate aggression theorists
c. Social learning theorists
d. Followers of Erik Erikson

8. The APGA, which became the AACD until 1992 and is now the
ACA, contributed to the growth of cross-cultural counseling by
a. the 1972 formation of the Association for Non-White
Concerns in Personnel and Guidance, later known as the
Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development.
b. the 1972 ethic which made it unethical to see culturally
different clients without three hours of relevant graduate
work in this area.
c. the 1972 ethic which required a 3,000-hour practicum in
order to work with culturally different clients.
d. urging nonwhites to take graduate counseling courses.

9. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (P.L. 88–352) prohibiting discrimination for reasons of gender, race, religion, or national origin
was instrumental in terms of setting the stage for minority concerns.
Daniel Levinson proposed a theory with several major life transitions. He
a. is the Father of Multicultural Counseling.
b. wrote the 1978 classic Seasons of a Man’s Life and the
sequel Seasons of a Woman’s Life in 1997.
c. postulated a midlife crisis for men between ages 40–45
and for women approximately fi ve years earlier.
d. b and c.

10. The three factors which enhance interpersonal attraction are
a. assertiveness, anxiety, ego strength.
b. close proximity, physical attraction, similar beliefs.
c. culture, race, assertiveness.
d. ego strength, anxiety, race

11. The term contextualism implies that
a. multicultural counseling is the oldest subspecialty in the
b. behavior must be assessed in the context of the culture in
which the behavior occurs.
c. the notion of worldview is highly inaccurate.
d. projective tests are more accurate than objective measures when performing cross-cultural counseling.

12. Carol Gilligan was critical of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of
moral development
a. as she felt it was too psychoanalytic.
b. as she felt it was too behavioristic.
c. as she felt it was not applicable to African Americans.
d. as she felt it was more applicable to males than females.

13. _______ helped to abet the multicultural counseling movement.
a. Arthur Jensen’s views on IQ testing (also known as Jensenism)
b. The civil rights movement
c. Jung’s feeling that all men and women from all cultures
possess a collective unconscious
d. The Tarasoff Duty

14. When a counselor speaks of a probable outcome in a case, he or
she is technically referring to
a. the prognosis.
b. the diagnosis.
c. the intervention.
d. attending behavior

15. When a counselor speaks of what he or she believes must transpire from a psychotherapeutic standpoint, he or she technically
is referring to
a. recommendations.
b. the diagnosis.
c. the prognosis.
d. the notion of transference

Answers: d,c,a,b,d,c,c,a,d,b,b,d,b,a,a,



The test covers 8 CACREP common core areas. The questions of the NCE are aligned with the common core areas listed below. These areas most likely have corresponded to courses you have taken. For me, I spent most of my time studying from these areas, as the questions on the test really focus on the theories, persons, terms and concepts from these areas.

1. Professional counseling orientation and ethical practice
2. Social and cultural diversity
3. Human growth and development
4. Career development
5. Counseling and helping relationships
6. Group counseling and group work
7. Assessment and testing
8. Research and program evaluation


There are six domains of the NCE, but they are not weighted equally as you can see from the chart below. Why is this important? Because if you are week in an area as I was with Research Methods, you may want to put all of your focus into that specific area, which may be a waste of time, especially if it is only worth 8% or 12% of your score. I’m not saying do not put any time studying these areas as they will be covered, but do not do so at the expense of other areas that count more toward your final score.

Below the chart, I have listed examples of content that falls under each domain.

DOMAIN______________________________PERCENT ____ NUMBER

Professional Practice and Ethics_________12%__________19
Intake, Assessment and Diagnosis________12%__________19
Areas of Clinical Focus_________________29%__________47
Treatment Planning____________________9%__________14
Counseling Skills and Interventions______30%__________48
Core Counseling Attributes._____________8%__________13



• Counselor competency,
• Eight ethical principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, fidelity and veracity, privacy and confidentiality
• Statistical concepts and research methods
• Legal and ethical counseling
• Counselor-client roles
• Clients rights and responsibilities
• Limits of confidentiality
• Duty to warn
• Informed consent: Explain counselor agency polies, payment fees, insurance benefits, counseling processes procedures, risks, benefits, uses
and limits of social media, legal aspects, confidentiality as it applies to electronic communication, obtain informed consent.
• Group rules, expectations and termination criteria
• The therapeutic relationship and trust
• Client records. Information to third parties.
• Accommodations for clients with disabilities
• When/How to refer a client elsewhere
• Advocacy
• Supervision/consultation
• Self-care


• Biopsychosocial interview
• Mental status exam
• Diagnostic interview
• Cultural formulation interview
• Initial interview
• Diagnosis and co occurring diagnosis
• Modality of treatment
• Assess presenting problem and level of distress
• Evaluate level of mental health functioning
• Screen clients for services
• Assess for trauma, substance abuse, suicidal ideation and other ongoing assessments
• Obtain Client self-reports, evaluate interactional dynamics
• Evaluate counseling effectiveness

AREAS OF CLINICAL FOCUS: (The list is alphabetical)

• Adjustment related to physical loss/injury/medical condition, aging/geriatric concerns: caregiving concerns,
• behavioral problems , bullying,
• cultural adjustments,
• developmental processes/tasks/issues
• emotional dysregulation
• end of life, terminal illness
• Family issues: adoption, blended family, child abuse-related concerns, child development, dating/relationship problems, divorce, family
abuse/violence (e.g., physical, sexual, emotional), interpersonal partner violence concerns, marital/partner communication problems, parenting /co-parenting conflicts, emotional dysregulation, remarriage/recommitment
• fear and panic, hopelessness/depression, loneliness/attachment
• gender identity development , grief/loss ,
• intellectual functioning issues, hyper/hypo mental focus,
• insomnia/sleep issues,
• maladaptive eating behaviors,
• obsessive thoughts/behaviors, occupation and career development
• physical issues related to anxiety physical issues related to depression, physical/emotional issues related to trauma, process addictions
(pornography, gambling)
• racism/discrimination/oppression , religious values conflict Retirement concerns, ruminating and/or intrusive thoughts,
• separation from primary care givers, sexual functioning concerns, sleeping habits, spiritual/existential concerns, stress management, substance use/addiction , suicidal thoughts/behaviors
• visual/auditory hallucinations,
• worry and anxiety,

This section encompasses counselors’ knowledge, skills, and abilities to develop an effective course of treatment.

• Collaborate with client to establish treatment goals and objectives
• Establish short- and long-term counseling goals consistent with clients’ diagnoses Identify barriers affecting client goal attainment
• Identify strengths that improve the likelihood of goal attainment
• Refer to different levels of treatment (e.g., outpatient, inpatient, residential, etc.) Refer to others for concurrent treatment
• Guide treatment planning
• Discuss termination process and issues
• Discuss transitions in group membership
• Follow-up after discharge
• Use assessment instrument results to facilitate client decision making
• Review and revise the treatment plan
• Engage clients in review of progress toward treatment goals
• Collaborate with other providers and client support systems (documentation and report writing)
• Discuss with clients the integration and maintenance of therapeutic progress Educate client to the value of treatment plan compliance


• Align intervention with client’s developmental level
• Align intervention with counseling modality (individual, couple, family, or group)
• Align intervention with client population (e.g., veterans, minorities, disenfranchised, disabled)
• Implement individual counseling in relation to a plan of treatment
• Establish therapeutic alliance F. Apply theory-based counseling intervention(s)
• Address addiction issues
• Address cultural considerations
• Address family composition and cultural considerations
• Evaluate and explain systemic patterns of interaction
• Explore family member interaction
• Explore religious and spiritual values
• Guide clients in the development of skills or strategies for dealing with their problems
• Help clients develop support systems
• Help facilitate clients’ motivation to make the changes they desire
• Improve interactional patterns
• Provide crisis intervention
• Educate client about transference and defense mechanisms
• Facilitate trust and safety
• Build communication skills
• Develop conflict resolution strategies
• Develop safety plans W. Facilitate systemic change
• Provide distance counseling or telemental health
• Provide education resources (e.g., stress management, assertiveness training, divorce adjustment)
• Provide psychoeducation for client
• Summarize
• Reframe/redirect
• Facilitate empathic responses
• Use self-disclosure
• Use constructive confrontation
• Facilitate awareness of here-and-now interactions
• Facilitate resolution of interpersonal conflict
• Use linking and blocking in a group context
• Management of leader–member dynamics
• Model giving and receiving of feedback
• Address impact of extended families
• Contain and manage intense feelings
• Explore the influence of family of origin patterns and themes
• Address the impact of social support network
• Use “structured” activities
• Promote and encourage interactions among group members
• Promote and encourage interactions with the group leader
• Use psychoeducation as a part of the group process
• Explain phases in the group process
• Identify and discuss group themes and patterns
• Create intervention based on the stage of group development
• Challenge harmful group member behaviors
• Address the potential interaction of members outside of the group


This section encompasses behaviors, traits, and dispositions of effective counselors.
• Awareness of self and impact on clients
• Genuineness
• Congruence
• Demonstrate knowledge of and sensitivity to gender orientation and gender issues
• Demonstrate knowledge of and sensitivity to multicultural issues
• Demonstrate conflict tolerance and resolution
• Empathic attunement
• Empathic responding
• Foster the emergence of group therapeutic factors
• Non-judgmental stance
• Positive regard
• Respect and acceptance for diversity
• Use foundational listening, attending, and reflecting skills



The NCE exam consists of 200 multiple-choice questions. Of those 200 questions, 160 will be scored and 40 will be unscored. Candidates will be given 3 hours and 45 minutes to complete the exam. You will be taking the NCE on a computer. The computer program does allow you to go back and review items, or answer those you purposely skipped the first time through the exam. You will be given “scratch” paper. You may take a break and leave any time but you cannot take or bring anything with you when you leave the room. Also, when you are finished with the exam, you can press the ‘score’ button and find out how you did. The vast majority of you will leave with a very bright smile!


Of the 200 questions, only 160 are scored and count towards the final score. The other 40 questions are being tested to see if they should be used in future examinations and do not count towards the final score.
A passing score is usually between 98 and 105, fluctuating slightly with each test administration. There are many forms of the NCE. A typical cutoff for passing is a score in the 90s. Never has the cutoff for the exam been higher than 65% out of 160, so with preparation it is a very passable exam. Scores take eight weeks to get back. While the pass rate for first-time takers is 84.8%, the test can become very overwhelming without proper preparation and knowledge of how the test is administered. Additionally, you are only allowed to test a total of three times in a two-year period before your application closes.

WHAT TO BRING TO THE EXAM: Exam admission letter, acceptable form of photo identification, #2 pencils.


NCE practice exams are one of the best ways to prepare for the actual exam.
NCE Practice test 1 (Study.com). https://study.com/nce/nce-practice-tests.html
NCE Practice test 2 (Quizlet): https://quizlet.com/475647083/national-counselor-examination-study-guide-flash-cards/
Official NCE Candidate Handbook: https://www.nbcc.org/Assets/Exam/handbooks/NCE.pdf
NCE Terms Question (Quizlet) : https://quizlet.com/564609636/national-counselor-exam-flash-cards/
NCE Terms Flashcard (Quizlet): https://quizlet.com/281683103/national-counselor-examination-flash-cards/

15 Good Practice Questions Provided by the NBCC

More Sample Questions for the NCE
Taken directly from NBCC handbook –

Following are sample questions in the same style and with similar content as will be on your examination. Use the sample questions to verify your understanding of the topics on the examination. Answers are provided for the sample questions.

1. In attempting to understand the life perspectives and characteristics of their clients, some counselors use Kohlberg’s theory of moral development as a theoretical framework. These counselors know that Kohlberg’s theory includes three progressive levels culminating in
A. self-actualization, wherein the individual is fully humanistic.
B. principled thought, wherein the individual adopts a self-accepted set of standards of behavior.

C. androgyny, wherein the individual exhibits both male and female stereotypic behaviors.
D. personhood, wherein the individual is free from moral dilemmas.

2. A professional counselor determines fees for monthly consultation services on a job- by-job basis. This is an example of which of the following types of reinforcement schedules?
A. Variable interval
B. Fixed interval
C. Variable ratio
D. Fixed ratio

3. Research on the development of a person in a so-called “humanistic life outlook” has shown that it is facilitated by what?
A. Formal educational experiences
B. Observational learning experiences
C. Diverse interpersonal interactions
D. All of the above

4. When persons who are characteristically shy and withdrawn participate in “assertiveness training,” initially they experience uncertainty and self-doubt. Counselors refer to this social psychological concept as
A. cognitive dissonance.
B. dissociation.
C. individuation.
D. acculturation.

5. “Men [used here to mean all people] are disturbed not by things, but by the view which they take of them.” This quote, attributable to Epictetus, most closely describes the counseling theory developed by
A. Rogers.
B. Carkhuff.
C. Freud.
D. Ellis.

6. The counseling technique in which the counselor
intensifies the client’s emotional state in order to help the client understand the irrationality of the emotional reaction is known as
A. confrontation.
B. paradoxical intention.
C. systematic desensitization.
D. reconfiguration.

7. Counselors know that groups are formed for different purposes. For example, in some groups the primary goal is to yield some specified outcome, or “product,” while in others the primary goal is to focus on the “process” of interaction within the group. Which of the following types of groups is more product- than process- oriented?
A. Behavioral
B. Transactional-analysis
C. Adlerian
D. Client-centered

8. In the context of group counseling, members that are high in conformity also tend to be high in
A. independence.
B. authoritarianism.
C. intelligence.
D. superiority.

9. A counselor who structures a career counseling group to help group members understand a “fields and levels” approach to careers is following the theory of
A. Super.
B. Roe.
C. Holland.
D. Tiedeman.

10. The concept of “career maturity” has been described and researched most extensively by
A. Crites.
B. Hoyt.
C. Tiedeman.
D. Ginzberg.

11. Person A and Person B both took the same test. Person A got a score of 100 while Person B got a score of 75. In order for a counselor to determine whether the difference between their scores was because of “chance,” the counselor would need to know which of the following characteristics of the test?
A. Mean
B. Standard deviation
C. Standard error of measurement
D. Standard error of the mean

12. A counselor conducted a study intended to evaluate the effectiveness of ongoing group career counseling on the vocational maturity of high school sophomores. The study was begun in September and continued until June. This study is particularly susceptible to which of the following threats to the validity of an experiment?
A. Regression
B. Maturation
C. Reactive effects of experimentation
D. Multiple treatment interference

13. A counselor designs a study where two experimental groups and one control group complete pre- and post-experiment measures of self-concept. The subjects were not randomly assigned to the groups because of scheduling problems. Which of the following techniques is MOST appropriate for analyzing the resultant data?
A. Analysis of covariance
B. Correlated t-tests
C. Analysis of variance
D. Wilcox on matched-pairs signed-ranks test

14. You have been providing career counseling to a client who is seeking employment. Concurrent with the counseling, and with your knowledge, the client has made application for employment with several employers. A potential employer calls you and asks for your opinion as to your client’s suitability for the employer’s job opening. Under which of the following conditions are you free (i.e., not in violation of professional ethics), to provide the information requested?
A. When it is clear that the client will not get the job unless the information is given
B. When you are certain that the information you would provide would assure that the client would get the job
C. When in your best judgment you believe the information would enhance the client’s chances for getting the job
D. None of the above

15. As applied to professional licensure of counselors, the term “reciprocity” means that
A. one licensing agency agrees to accept the licensing standards of another as sufficient for its own.
B. a licensed counselor may legally perform the functions of a licensed psychologist.
C. certification is synonymous with licensure.
D. graduation from a fully accredited counselor education program automatically constitutes eligibility for licensure.

Answer Key

1. B
2. C
3. D
4. A
5. D
6. B
7. A
8. B
9. B
10. A
11. C
12. B
13. A
14. D
15. A



1. Ginzburg and his colleagues believe career decision making is done in three phases. In phase one, the child:

a. Begins thinking about careers
b. All are correct
c. Role play
d. Pretends

2. Which of the following are some of the categories of Holland’s career typology?

a. realistic
b. investigative
c. artistic
d. social
e. all are correct

3. Donald Super’s developmental self-concept theory concentrated on stages during the lifespan, including _____.

a. The years from birth to early 20s
b. The 20s
c. The 30s
d. The 40s
e. all are correct

4. John Holland felt that the closer the match between someone’s personality and the characteristics of the occupation _____.

a. the more confused they would be.
b. the more satisfied they will be.
c. the less happy they will be on the job.
d. the less they will like their job.
e. has nothing to do with whether they like the job or not.

5. Which of the following would be the most accurate way to describe the three major forms of parental abuse?

a. Emotional abuse, physical abuse, and mental abuse
b. Emotional or mental abuse, physical abuse, and neglect
c. Physical abuse, violence, and bullying
d. Mental abuse, bullying, and rejection

6. If a family is too close, and there is no encouragement of individuality, their level of Cohesion is:

a. Enmeshed
b. Disengaged
c. Distant
d. Connected

7. According to Berne, which of the following ego states occurs when an individual makes independent decisions about the world around him or her?

a. Parent
b. Adolescent
c. Adult
d. Child

8. What do the adulthood theories of Levinson, Gould, Perry, and Jung all have in common?

a. They believed adulthood is a time of stagnancy and being settled.
b. They agree that development continues into adulthood.
c. They believed development happens only during young adulthood.
d. They believed adulthood is a reflection of one’s younger years.

9. According to Kohlberg, the ability to make moral decisions is developmental. His theory assumes that the second level of morality contains two stages that are of a typical level of development for adolescents and potentially some adults. This level is known as _____.

a. Pre-conventional
b. Conventional
c. Post-conventional
d. Semi-conventional

10. Of the following, which type of disorder occurs when an individual is defiant, may throw temper tantrums, and has behavior much like a toddler?

b. Learning disability
c. Conduct disorder
d. Autism

11. How does the study of human development help us understand developmental abnormalities in children?

a. It tells us what children with developmental abnormalities should be doing at different stages of their life.
b. It helps us understand what most children should be capable of doing at different stages of their life.
c. It is typically concerned with the study of abnormal behavior.
d. It helps us detect visual and/or hearing impairments at an early age.

12. Fritz Perls developed which type of counseling in the 1940s that focuses heavily on self-awareness?

a. Gestalt counseling
b. Existentialism
c. Humanistic therapy
d. Person-centered therapy

13. Richard just got married, is in a mundane 9-5 job, and is having doubts about his purpose in life. He wants to feel that his life has meaning. He visits a counselor to discuss his feelings of dread, despair, and depression.;Which of the following affective counseling frameworks would specifically help Richard’s problem the most?

a. Client-centered
b. Gestalt
c. Cognitive-behavioral
d. Existentialism

14. Your relationships with those in _____ can help you with accreditation and licensing.

a. professional organizations
b. hospitals
c. the justice system
d. drug treatment centers

15. Which of the following is NOT a specialization in the counseling field:

a. School psychologist
b. Experimental psychologist
c. Developmental psychologist who is certified in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders
d. All of the answers are specializations in the counseling field

16. Scores from standardized exams that are based on and compared to the scores of other similar individuals are known as _____.

a. Criterion-referenced
b. Reliable
c. Norm-referenced
d. Valid

17. All students applying to a bachelor’s degree program in nursing must pass a final examination at the end of their sophomore year. Anyone who scores at least 80% on the exam will be considered for acceptance into the final two years of the program. The test is difficult and is written to identify the most academically prepared students. This type of exam would be considered an example of:

a. A criterion-referenced test
b. A discriminatory exam
c. A norm-referenced test
d. A bell curve referenced test

18. Bandura’s study involving young children and a Bobo doll revealed that:

a. Children exposed to a model treating a doll aggressively learned aggressive behavior through imitation.
b. Children are naturally violent when playing with dolls.
c. When left alone, children preferred to play with dolls over blocks.
d. Aggressive behavior from adults toward toys had no impact on children’s behaviors with toys.

19. A _____ is a conversation that takes place between a client and a psychologist for the purpose of aiding a psychologist with diagnosing and treating the client. It is also known as a conversation with a purpose.

a. Clinical interview
b. Intake interview
c. Mental status exam
d. Consultation

20. Storming in group context means

a. thunder and lightning.
b. group members yell at each other.
c. group members leave the group.
d. the group members are trying to find their role in the group.
e. group members don’t like the leader.

Answer Key
1. B
2. E
3. E
4. B
5. B
6. A
7. C
8. B
9. B
10. C

11. B
12. A
13 D
14. A
15. D
16. C
17. A
18. A
19. A
20. D


Hi DePaul students,

Congrats on making the journey to obtain your LPC.  I myself delayed taking the test for many years, only to wish I had taken it sooner.  On the other hand, I have a wealth of information to share about the best resources to use for studying for the exam.
The first resource is Howard Rosenthal’s Encyclopedia of Counseling.  Use the most current edition to get the best information.   Also Available is a CD set by Rosenthal called Vital Information and Review Questions.  You may say “Who has a CD player?”  The Academic Success Center in the College of Education has a CD drive you can borrow.   We also have copies of the book as well as the CD’s available in the ASC.  When studying for the exam, I uploaded the CDs to my computer and phone, so that I could listen to them anywhere.  I listened in the car, while running or walking, while waiting for appointments, you get the idea.
You may also want to use note card apps such as Quizlet or Chegg.  Both have many submissions and notecards already developed for the NCE.  As good as these are, for the areas you are weak in, I would recommend handwriting your own notecards. As tedious as this may seem, the handwriting will help you remember more.
Lastly, after studying for two months, I would start looking at guides with practice questions for the exam.  There are many available to purchase at https://www.nbcc.org/exams/examprep  but each option also offers a pretty extensive list of FREE examples.
To start, I would assess your current knowledge using this test example as it includes all areas of the test. Then I would start studying your weakest areas first and move toward areas you may need review in.
NCE Assessment:
I will send out these blogs regularly to your email and include practice questions for your test.  I wish you all the best in your study for the NCE exam.
Nora Murphy

20 Terms to know for the NCE (Rosenthal)

Hello all,

Below are 20 terms to know for the NCE.  They have been gleaned from Rosenthal’s YouTube videos on preparing for the NCE.  I found them very helpful in taking my own test.  “Equine Assisted Therapy” was actually on my exam.

Advisory Board: An advisory board in a non-profit agency or educational program an advisory board is a cadre of individuals who have expertise to improve the efficacy of the agency or the college and university program thus a counseling program might have a private practice counselor or practitioner. It  might also include a professor from a similar program from another educational institution might also include a graduate of the program now practicing in the field.  All of these people could be on the advisory board

 Anti-homework movement: Refers to research indicating that excessive homework can actually be counterproductive leading to declining test scores while causing stress and possible health problems. The impact is strongest in elementary school. The National Education Association (NEA) suggests ten minutes of homework per Grade. For example, ten minutes for a first grader and no more than two hoursfor a senior in high school.

 Bamboo Ceiling: A type of discrimination popularized by the 2005 book “Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling Career strategies for Asians”.  Misperceptions of Asians as well as racism and stereotyping often prevent Asians from certain jobs such as positions in management leadership. Asian Americans currently have the highest educational level of any racial group but they have the lowest chance of securing a management position when compared to all other racial groups.  The so called sticky floor barrier suggests that Asians may snare a professional position in business law academia etc but ironically it will often be a low-level job with little room for advancement.

Black Box Warning: First instituted in 1979, strict warnings placed on a medicine by the Food and Drug Administration indicating evidence suggest that the medicine in question could have serious side effects or other habits.  In counseling, the best example is a warning on a prescription SSRI antidepressant. For example, Prozac indicate that the drug can cause suicidal tendencies in persons who were not suicidal prior to taking the medicine. in general medical practice a warning that a medicinal has serious negative side effects or hazards.

Board Diversity:

  1. A board of directors for a nonprofit agency should not merely be composed of individuals working in the helping field. A board might be composed of an attorney, a banker,  a physician an accountant etc.  Hence board members from these areas could provide expertise that agency administrators and staff would generally not possess in areas related to business marketing money management are the legal side of the organization definition.
  2. The notion that since agencies serve diverse groups of people the board itself should have diversity such as members from various ethnic groups, gender identities, sexual orientations etc.
  • Exam tip: if the exam question just says board and it doesn’t tell you what kind of board there’s probably a 90% chance unless the context of the question leads you to have a different conclusion but is probably a 90% chance that the exam question is talking about the board of directors in not an advisory board.

Complimentary methods or Complementary and Alternative Modalities (CAM): These are practices a treatment beyond traditional talk therapy often referred to in the older literature as alternative treatments. things such as yoga, acupuncture, animal assisted therapy, mindfulness, nutritional strategies, etc. The ethical guidelines stipulate that when using or referring clients for these CAM,  counselors must have empirical scientific support for their use. The method in question should meet evidence-based practice (EBP) and the guidelines should not be out of scope with the counselors scope of practice is outlined by state Regulations.

Equine Assisted Therapy:  The use of horses to enhance the treatment process. Therapeutic  activities such as grooming or feeding a horse in the presence of a professional would be an example of this modality.

GRAS: (Generally Recognized As Safe) This designation is given by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to describe a medicine, nutritional supplement, cosmetic, food additive etc.  The implication is that the substance will not cause harm when used in a recommended fashion.

Ketamine also known as Special K: This is an expensive rapid-acting antidepressant administered via IV or nasally through the nose with near immediate results. The results however seem to be short-lived. Ketamine’s actual brand name Kettle R was initially used in the 1960s to curb pain on the battlefield in the Vietnam War and as an anesthetic for human and veterinary procedures.  The drug has a controversial status since it has a reputation as a club drug.  At this point in time the mental health community is still split on whether ketamine is a wonder drug for mood disorders in persons with suicidal tendencies or if it should not be used since it has serious side effects such as hallucinations and dissociative reactions. I any event ketamine clinics are popping up everywhere.

The Lucifer Effect: In a 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment conducted by psychologist Philip G. Zimbardo took volunteers and told them to ask as if they were guards and they became very mean and sadistic in a short period of time.  In 2007 Zimbardo penned a book called the Lucifer effect understanding how good people turn evil that elucidated the fact that societal roles and situational factors often produce cruel behavior regardless of an individual’s background, upbringing and genetics.

 Neuroplasticity; Neuroplasticity refers to your brain’s ability to change and heal especially after a disease, stroke or injury by farming or reorganizing synaptic connections. The notion that this can only occur in children has been proven false. Some exams refer to this as brainplasticity.  Talking to a counselor has been shown to cause neuroplasticity on the part of the client

Parking Lot Suicides: refers to veterans who take their own lives at a Veterans Affairs VA facility usually a hospital. The suicide can occur in a building are on the parking lot some of these suicides are seemingly linked to frustrations related to getting appropriate medical or mental health care from the VA.

Person ( or People) first language: In both oral and written communication the person should be designated first and then their condition thus you should not say a visually impaired client but rather a client with a visual impairment since the disability should not be the primary characteristic or defining feature of the person it should not come first to put it first is now considered dehumanizing.

Placator Communication Style: According to the experiential family therapist Virginia Satir, this is a person who tries to please everybody.  Generally this person is described as non-assertive again this individual never disagrees with others. Why? This  person is extremely worried about how others perceive them. This is seen as dysfunctional.

Predatory journal: A negative term referring to a journal that does not have a rigorous peer-review process in fact it may not have a true review process at all.  Journals of this nature are not associated with a major organization such as a ACA,  NASW, AA or even a recognized scientific publisher. The author or authors actually have to pay for the articles published and such publications often advertise and provide quick turnaround times.

Silver Tsunami or Grey Tsunami: The term is used to describe the fact that the population is getting older or a term used to describe a population with more older adults than younger people.

Snowball Sample: This is a form of sampling for research that is non or not random aka nonprobability sampling. The first person in the sample recruits somebody else for the sample and that person recruits yet another individual. The pattern continues until the sample size is met. The samples like a snowball rolling downhill picking up size as it gathers more snow.  This approach lends itself to finding participants who otherwise might be difficult to recruit such as homeless persons.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: TMS is a treatment for depression, neurological pain and schizophrenia inwhich a magnetic stimulus, a coil placed on or near the skull physically stimulates the brain.  It is often publicized as an alternative to psychiatric medications. A series of sessions would generally be recommended.  At this pointin time the mental health community does not universally endorse this method. It’s often confused with electroconvulsive shock therapy or electroconvulsive therapy ECT.

Wash Out Period: A wash out period in research occurs in a study when a participant is asked to stop taking a prescription medicine before the trial begins so the researcher has less variables to take into account. Moreover, the washout period helps establish that the current drug or the current treatment is responsible for any changes rather than the previous treatment or drugs. The term literally means the previous substances are washed out of the body.  Ethically the risk taking this step must be taken into consideration.