Source: https://unsplash.com/photos/QzWzLokHvxEMethamphetamine is a highly-addictive drug that is both dangerous and debilitating for its users. Yet, it remains prevalent around the world. In the United States, methamphetamine misuse and meth-related overdose deaths are increasing despite extensive efforts to curb the illicit trade.
How Common is Meth Addiction?
According to the 2020 National Survey of Drug Use and Health by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, approximately 2.6 million people aged 12 or older were reported to have used methamphetamine in the past year.The report showed that an estimated 1.5 million people suffered from methamphetamine addiction or methamphetamine use disorder. In addition, the CDC estimated that 23,837 people died from psychostimulant overdoses that year, primarily from meth misuse.Most disturbingly, our youth are showing evidence of meth misuse. According to a 2020 study by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, an estimated 0.5 percent of 8th graders, 0.3 percent of 10th graders, and 1.4 of 12th graders reported using methamphetamine in the last 30 days.
Why is Meth So Addictive?
Dopamine is a chemical that is produced in our brains. It is an essential neurotransmitter for the reward center of the brain. Aside from creating the feeling of pleasure, dopamine plays a role in regulating several other body functions such as mood, motivation, behavior, attention, and arousal.The brain produces dopamine when we participate in enjoyable activities that benefit our survival such as sex, exercise, eating, and socializing. When a person uses methamphetamine, the drug hijacks the brain’s neurotransmitter system and produces the feeling of reward despite providing no benefits.The initial surge of dopamine brings a rush of euphoria and pleasure and creates a strong sense of well-being for the user. However, the effects only last for a short time, leading users to continue using the drug in order to experience the same powerful sensations.Repeated use of meth causes the brain to stop releasing dopamine on its own. The only way to recreate the feeling of euphoria is to take the methamphetamine. Over time, users also develop a tolerance to the drug, resulting in them having to take stronger and more frequent doses to achieve the desired high.
Short-Term Effects of Meth
It can be difficult to determine if a first-time or infrequent user is taking methamphetamines. Most of the short-term effects of meth subside in several hours while others can persist for over a day. Note that some seemingly positive effects add to the addictive qualities of the drug.The short-term effects of meth include:
Increased physical activity
Increased sexual arousal
Rapid or irregular heart rate
Increased body temperature and excessive sweating
Fidgeting or twitching
Nausea or vomiting
Long-Term Effects of Meth
As users increase the strength and frequency of their meth doses, they put themselves at risk of an overdose. Symptoms of meth overdose include hyperthermia (abnormally high body temperature), dangerously high blood pressure, seizures, stroke, and heart attack. Overdosing on meth can often be fatal.In addition, long-term misuse of methamphetamines can damage the brain, leading to impaired cognitive abilities and poor emotional regulation. Some long-term psychological effects of meth misuse include memory loss, anxiety, aggression, confusion, delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, and psychosis.At the same time, meth misuse results in a variety of long-term physical effects. These include weight loss and anorexia, rotten teeth (‘meth mouth’), skin infections and sores from intensely itchy skin, lung and heart disease, and liver and kidney damage. In addition, risk-taking behavior associated with meth use increases the probability of contracting hepatitis B and C as well as HIV.
Treatment for Meth Addiction
At present, there are no FDA-approved medications to treat methamphetamine use disorder. However, behavioral therapies have proven effective. The two main methods of behavioral therapy for meth users are cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management interventions.Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) helps patients to identify the situations that trigger their meth use. CBT allows patients to create productive instead of destructive behavior patterns. Patients learn how to communicate, manage stressors, and handle tough situations without turning to drugs.Contingency management interventions offer motivational incentives to patients who can stay drug-free. When patients successfully pass a set length of time without using meth, they are rewarded with coupons or vouchers. This encourages patients and increases treatment compliance.Certain facilities offering meth addiction treatment Columbus feature individualized treatment plans that combine several approaches such as counseling, psychotherapy, support groups, and supplementary medication to ensure that patients are well-equipped to control their cravings and behavior.The fleeting benefits that methamphetamines produce are not worth the risk of addiction. The long-term effects of meth misuse and addiction can cause serious permanent physiological and psychological damage. Meth addicts can lose their families, their careers, and their lives.Methamphetamine is a severe problem in the US. Therefore, we must be educated and vigilant about possible signs of meth misuse. Individuals suffering from methamphetamine use disorder should seek treatment by contacting a doctor, a treatment facility, or an anonymous helpline.
UV-visible spectroscopy is a commonly used approach in many areas of science, including bacterial culture, drug detection, and nucleotide purity tests and quantification, as well as quality assurance in the drink industry as well as chemical research.
So keep on reading the entire post because it will explain how UV-Vis spectroscopy works, how to assess the output, the concept’s strengths and limits, as well as some of its uses.
What exactly is UV-Vis spectroscopy?
UV-Vis spectroscopy is an analysis method that compares the number of distinct wavelengths of UV or visible light absorbed or reflected by a sample to a standard or null sample.
Because this spectroscopic approach is based on the usage of light, we need first to look at the characteristics of light. Light has an energy that is inversely proportionate to its wavelength. Electrons in various bonding sites in a material require a variable amount of energy to be promoted to higher energy levels.
This is why light absorbs at various wavelengths in various substances. UV radiation has smaller different wavelengths, up to about 100 nm. The wavelength of light can thus be employed to evaluate or identify distinct chemicals in UV-Vis spectroscopy by finding the specific wavelengths correlating to peak absorbance.
What exactly is a UV-Vis spectrophotometer & how may it work?
UV-Vis spectrophotometer employ’s a light source to enlighten a sample with light spanning the UV to visible wavelength range. The devices then measure the amount of light absorbed, transmitted, or mirrored by the specimen at each frequency.
Some spectrophotometers feature an expanded wavelength range that extends into the near-infrared. In speaking, it is feasible to:
Determine the presence of molecules in a solid or liquid sample.
Determine the absorbance or transmittance of a liquid or solid over a wide range of wavelengths.
Measure the color of a substance or characterize its reflectance qualities.
Investigate chemical reactions and biological processes.
UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a flexible technique that has been utilized in a variety of disciplines for almost a century. UV-Vis spectrophotometers are commonly used in labs for test methods or study, chemical, petrochemistry, biotech, as well as medicines.
How does UV spectroscopy work?
While there are numerous variants on the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, let us explore the essential components to acquire a better grasp of how a UV-Vis spectrophotometer works.
This light-based technique requires a continuous source capable of generating light at a wide range of wavelengths.
In both the UV and visible areas, a single xenon lamp is typically used as a high-intensity light source. In comparison to tungsten and halogen bulbs, xenon lights are more costly and less stable.
Following that, from the wide range of wavelengths produced by the light source, specific wavelengths of light appropriate to the sample type and analytics for identification must be chosen for sample evaluation.
Analyze the samples:
The light is then sent through a sample by whichever wavelength selection is utilized in the spectrophotometer. Measuring a reference sample, sometimes known as a “blank sample,” including a cuvette packed with a comparable solvent used to produce the sample, is required for all studies.
If an aqueous buffer solution samples were placed in is used for tests, the comparison is an aquatic buffer solution having no material of interest. The sterile culture media would be utilized as the reference for analyzing bacterial cultures.
When evaluating probiotic strains, the sterile culture media would’ve been utilized as a comparison. The relating signal is then used by the equipment to help determine the true absorption spectra of the analyses.
After the light has gone through the sample, it is converted into a readable electrical signal by a detector.
UV-Vis spectroscopy’s advantages and disadvantages:
There is no such thing as a flawless procedure, and UV-Vis spectroscopy is no exception. The approach does, however, offer a few key advantages that make it popular, which are stated below.
Measurements may be taken fast, making them straightforward to include in experimental techniques.
The instruments are simple to operate and need little user training before usage.
Data analysis often necessitates minimum processing, implying that little user training is necessary.
Because the device is relatively affordable to buy and use, it is accessible to a wide range of laboratories.
So this is all from us; if you want to know how does UV spectroscopy work? This post goes into great length on UV-Vis spectroscopy. IR spectroscopy is a way to determine the usable light energy required to begin a process” in a material using an infrared spectrometer.
Each group in a molecule has its own characteristic vibrations, which are represented in different infrared spectrum areas. Individual bands inside an infrared spectrometer can therefore be used to determine the presence of organic compounds in a sample. As a result, IR spectroscopy is very valuable for chemical identification.
The last few months have been full of updates for the soccer team of DePaul with fresh newcomers being announced for the class team and a new associate head coach, all as early preparation for the soccer season to be started in August 2022. During March and August, the team has had five full spring weekends scheduled to test its performance against several regional opponents.
There are high hopes for the DePaul soccer team and all eyes are set on the latest acquisitions. A brand-new list of players with great potential and previous athletic achievement are expected to hit the ball in the fall and make the best season for the team, ever.
About the soccer team
The soccer team of DePaul, called Blue Demons, is made up of players from various colleges of the DePaul University in Chicago. Represented by the colors blue and scarlet, the school’s team competes in the Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and is a member of the Big East Conference.
The team was initially established exactly 40 years ago, back in 1982. The best position was achieved in 2008, when the team succeeded to get their First Round position in the NCAA, after a match against the Bradley Braves, another team from the state of Illinois.
The men’s soccer team of DePaul is the best ranked out of all the athletic teams under the Department of Campus Recreation. The university also has a women’s soccer team with good ranking. Other sports represented are football, ice hockey, lacrosse, roller hockey, rowing, rugby, tennis, volleyball and water polo.
If you like soccer, you probably like to research statistics and know exactly who your favorite players and teams are. In that case, betting platforms like 10CRIC have all the right options for you as a soccer fan. And although the international betting platform is built around cricket, there are many other sports represented on the website as well. Although the main focus is on the Indian sports market, you can use the platform internationally and benefit from its features.
Currently, in Chicago, the De Paul team is trained by head coach Mark Plotkin, on his second season as a leader with the school team. Plotkin is only the seventh name on a very short list of head coaches since 1982, and he is himself a graduate from the DePaul University and a former player in the team. The team is training and playing its home official games on the Wish Field soccer stadium and DIBS, the team’s mascot dressed in blue and red, is never missing.
Fresh resources for 2022 season
In a press release published on the official page of the soccer team before New Year, the school officially announced ten new incomers to the team and presented them individually on the website together with their playing position in the team. Nine of the new members are freshmen and one is a transfer from Colgate:
Tyson Amoo-Mensah was signed as midfielder. He originates from Chicago and played soccer at Sockers Football Club and Naperville North High School before committing to DePaul’s team. Tyson has been noted for his restless defense and the hard work covering all the field during games, enjoying the entire match.
Diego Benitez, also signed as midfielder, comes from Palatine and has played in Sockers Football Club before the class of 2022.
Another midfielder for the new class team is Colin Mackey, coming from Indiana Fire Academy.
Sebastian Sanchez from Louisville City Football Club will cover the mixed position of defender/midfielder. He also played on the soccer team of Ballard High School.
Ethan Gordon, new defender from Tulsa Soccer Club comes with an already notorious performance as former captain and key leader at Booker T. Washington High School and, more recently, earned ECNL All-Conference honors with Tulsa Soccer Club.
Felipe Corral from Sockers Football Club and Alex Halevy from Garces Memorial High School are both playing winger positions.
For the forward position, the coaching team selected Sam Moore from Columbus Crew Academy. An extremely valuable player, highly regarded in his previous teams, Sam is expecting to take his scoring success to a new level in DePaul.
Clayton Brooks from Louisville City Football Club will be assigned the position of goalkeeper at Blue Demons starting in August.
Will Stroud, is the only graduate to be transferred from Colgate University and join the long list of newcomers. He already played in 20 matches over 2 seasons in Colgate and has experience in college level soccer. In the DePaul team, Will will play as defender.
Changes were made also in the coaching team, with Tyler Keever becoming the Associate Head Coach after 4 seasons of serving as an assistant. This announcement was made in February, explaining the successful influence Keever had on the progress of several players from the team.
Changes in team – a good sign?
A lot of changes in both players and coaches can either bring advantages or disrupt the team how it was before. For the DePaul soccer team, all the recent changes made in the team are meant to prepare for the season of 2022, starting in August. After a very good previous year, head coach Plotkin is very excited about his new selection and looking forward to the start of the season in August, his fifth season of collaboration with the DePaul men’s soccer program.
Without any resemblance to what happens in other countries of the world, in the U.S., college sports are extremely well implemented, at a professional level, supported by a system of organizations that are promoting it on a regional and national level. College students become top athletes even before graduating and have the opportunity to choose their future career, either in their main field of academic studies or sports. Furthermore, there is of course not only soccer to choose from – among some of the most popular college sports are baseball, basketball and others. DePaul is especially known for basketball, but also offers cross-country and tennis with both men’s and women’s teams.