Episode 26: Streamline Rule Precludes a Complete Record

This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University’s College of Law, Refugee and Forced Migrations Studies Program and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy. The podcast examines the federal government’s request for comments on a proposed Interim Final Rule involving adjudication of asylum applications.  It argues that the expedited deadlines and streamlining procedures will prevent asylum applicants from developing a complete record in support of their claims and may make it almost impossible for asylum seekers to obtain legal representation.  The Action Step below lists a link to the Interim Final Rule and the link to upload your comments.  The Resources list several different links to understand the problems with the Interim Final Rule and different templates to assist you draft your comments.

You are invited to submit comments with your personal critiques of elements of the law.

Please note, once you click on this link, you will find a “Commentator’s Checklist” at the top of the page which provides helpful guidelines in preparing your comment.  Comments must be filed before midnight, Eastern Daylight Savings time, on Tuesday, May 31.
The full proposed Interim Final Rule

The quote in the podcast from the proposed IFR regarding soliciting public opinion can be found at 87 Fed. Reg. at 18081.  The quote regarding the Immigration Judge receiving a full record can be found at 87 Fed. Reg. at 18098-99.  The quote regarding the basic purpose of the IFR can be found at 87 Fed. Reg. at 18143).

The National Immigrant Justice Center submitted its comments previously.  You may review their suggestions to provide you with examples of areas of concern.  NIJC invites you to use their comments as a template, but it is important that you provide your own words and ideas with your comments.
NIJC has a shorter summary.
NIJC has also prepared a flow chart to demonstrate the complexity of the proposed rule.
Human Rights first has also provided a summary of its concerns and suggested alternatives.
If you want to prepare comments based on the two critiques in our podcast, you may follow this template below.  You can prepare your letter and upload it at the link provided above:
Submitted via https://www.regulations.gov

Rená Cutlip-Mason
Chief, Division of Humanitarian Affairs
Office of Policy and Strategy
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
Department of Homeland Security
5900 Capital Gateway Drive
Camp Springs, MD 20588-0009
Lauren Alder Reid
Assistant Director, Office of Policy
Executive Office for Immigration Review
5107 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1800
Falls Church, VA 22041

Re: Procedures for Credible Fear Screening and Consideration of Asylum, Withholding of Removal, and Convention Against Torture Protection Claims by Asylum Officers (03/29/2021)

Dear Chief Cutlip-Mason & Assistant Director Reid,

Provide an introductory paragraph of your interest in commenting and explain your expertise and experience in assisting asylum seekers either individually or your faith-based or community-based organization. 

Determine what parts of the IFR you oppose.  The two we discuss in the podcast might include language similar to the following:

  1.  The Interim Final Rule proposed deadlines and a streamlined process that will prevent asylum seekers from obtaining legal representation or develop a full record documenting their claim.

Provide your examples of how the expedited deadlines will hinder your work.

  1. The Interim Final Rule’s proposed deadlines and streamlined process will prevent many asylum seekers from ever obtaining employment authorization, thus further weakening their ability to pursue all the remedies United States law may make available.

You may share your experiences documenting the importance of employment authorization in ensuring that our legal process works.

The quote from the Purpose of the Refugee Act of 1980.
The quote from the Preamble of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

We welcome your inquiries or suggestions for future podcasts.  If you would like to ask more questions about our podcasts or comment, email us at: mission.depaul@gmail.com

Lawful Assembly 25: Stop the Pretense That It is Just About Public Health


This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University’s College of Law, Refugee and Forced Migrations Studies Program and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy. The podcast examines the “Public Health and Border Security Act of 2022” and critiques the intent of the proposal.  It argues that the implementation of Title 42 procedures in denying asylum seekers entrance to the United States masquerades as public health and violates domestic law.


1.    Church World Service:  This link provides a sample communication with your elected Senators and Representative to “Urge Congress to Reject Anti-Asylum Policies and Invest in Humane Welcome”:


  1. The Welcome With Dignity Coalition offers you this sample script to call your elected representatives today: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1_pv0jLpHxLp2EF6bGOITzXKDCjhYdJmIjGuR_g1OClc/edit


The quote from Monette Zard can be found in “Epidemiologists and Public Health Experts Implore Biden Administration to End Title 42 and Restart Asylum” at: https://www.publichealth.columbia.edu/research/program-forced-migration-and-health/press-release-epidemiologists-and-public-health-experts-implore-biden-administration-end-title-42

The National Immigrant Justice Center offers an explanation of why Title 42 must be eliminated and offers several action steps: “Exploiting the Pandemic To Expel Asylum Seekers: An FAQ On Why Title 42 Expulsions Must End at: https://immigrantjustice.org/staff/blog/exploiting-pandemic-expel-asylum-seekers-faq-why-title-42-expulsions-must-end

The Interfaith Immigration Coalition provides you with a toolkit to take action at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1_pv0jLpHxLp2EF6bGOITzXKDCjhYdJmIjGuR_g1OClc/edit

The Welcome With Dignity offers a: “Title 42 Must Go Social Media Toolkit” at:  https://docs.google.com/document/d/1BNntgTQd427bBHM9SjDVs9UKNYWgfyUk-4uctCmnEBA/edit

The budget amounts comparing enforcement expenditures to resettlement efforts came from:  Todd Miller, “More Than a Wall: Corporate Profiteering and the Militarization of U.S. Borders,” Transnational Institute (TNI), September 16, 2019 at https://www.tni.org/files/publication-downloads/more_than_a_wall_-_executive_summary.pdf

We welcome your inquiries or suggestions for future podcasts.  If you would like to ask more questions about our podcasts or comment, email us at: mission.depaul@gmail.com

Lawful Assembly Episode 24: Restoring Roots of Refugee Responses

This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University’s College of Law, Refugee and Forced Migrations Studies Program and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy. The podcast explores different national responses to refugees fleeing the war in Ukraine.  It urges that the current generosity offered to Ukrainian refugees serves as a template for a more responsible refugee protection for all nations.


  1. Church World Service: Rebuilding the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP): Recommendations to Strengthen Refugee Resettlement in the United States” March 2022 at: https://cwsglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/USRAPRecommendations.pdf
  2. Human Rights First has offered a link to advocate for passage of the Afghan Adjustment Act at: https://humanrightsfirst.quorum.us/campaign/36088/?eType=EmailBlastContent&eId=9de6d8cd-d102-4d03-92f8-04439421e680
  3. Evacuate our Allies has put together a social media tool kit to assist educating about and advocating for the Afghan Adjustment Act: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1w_nDOBv3QObvKovEJ1P7PR_z4zJCbkyjcHYVbPCggHw/edit

Editorial: Welcome the stranger, whether from Libya, Ukraine or Mexico

The Advocates for Human Rights have provided a fact sheet on the issues demonstrating the need for the Afghan Adjustment Act at:  https://www.theadvocatesforhumanrights.org/res/byid/9334?eType=EmailBlastContent&eId=9de6d8cd-d102-4d03-92f8-04439421e680

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s quote, “I hate war” came from a speech he gave at Chautauqua, New York (August 14, 1936) and can be found at: https://libquotes.com/franklin-d-roosevelt/quote/lba3x5x

The concept of “responsibility sharing” came from a blog post by Elena Chachko and Katerina Linos in “2022 UKRAINE CRISIS: Sharing Responsibility for Ukrainian Refugees: An Unprecedented Response,” March 5, 2022, Lawfare, at:  https://www.lawfareblog.com/sharing-responsibility-ukrainian-refugees-unprecedented-response

“Canada launches new temporary residence pathway to welcome those fleeing the war in Ukraine,” March 17, 2022, can be found at: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2022/03/canada-launches-new-temporary-residence-pathway-to-welcome-those-fleeing-the-war-in-ukraine.html

We welcome your inquiries or suggestions for future podcasts.  If you would like to ask more questions about our podcasts or comment, email us at: mission.depaul@gmail.com

Lawful Assembly Podcast Episode 23: What the heck is a proposed rule? (and other questions)

This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University’s College of Law, Refugee and Forced Migrations Studies Program and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy. The podcast responds to questions raised by our listeners about the importance of responding to proposed federal regulations.  In five of our previous podcasts we invited you to file responses to proposed regulations or federal rules impacting how our nation treats asylum seekers and refugees.  We have been asked why engage in submitting comments and what else can one do to expand hospitality within our nation?

If you are seeking additional immigration on asylum issues such as limiting asylum applications or restricting admissions based on public health considerations, visit the National Immigrant Justice Center’s resource page at:  https://immigrantjustice.org/issues/asylum-seekers-refugees

If you would like more information on the work of the DePaul College of Law Asylum and Immigration Law Clinic, visit:  https://law.depaul.edu/academics/experiential-learning/legal-clinics/asylum-immigration/Pages/default.aspx

If you would like more information on refugee resettlement programs, re-visit Podcast 10, “Rebuild Refugee Resettlement,” where you will also find information about Chicago-area refugee resettlement programs:

The Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Chicago Refugee Resettlement Program

Ethiopian Community Association of Chicago


World Relief Chicagoland Refugee Resettlement

Heartland Human Care Services

We welcome your inquiries or suggestions for future podcasts.  If you would like to ask more questions about our podcasts or comment, email us at: mission.depaul@gmail.com

Lawful Assembly Podcast Episode 22: Suffer the Little Children

This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University’s College of Law, Refugee and Forced Migrations Studies Program and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy. The podcast requests that you send comments to the federal government before midnight eastern standard time on Tuesday, January 25 providing ideas to end the policies that have led to family separation and lengthy detention of asylum seekers.  The Biden administration has recognized the human tragedy caused by these policies and has requested your ideas to ensure the United States never engages in such policies and practices again.


You can use either of these links to send your ideas to the Task Force.

The National Immigrant Justice Center has provided the direct link to the request for comments:


A coalition of groups has put together this link for Immigrant Justice at:


You can use any resources or background material you find persuasive, but please make sure your comments uniquely represent your views.  Do not simply copy and paste someone else’s comments unless you add why you find them persuasive.  You can add your personal experience or why you believe the United States should end family separation and detention of asylum seekers.

The quotes from the Biden administration regarding the human tragedy of family separation and the goals of the Task Force can be found in the Background information produced by the Department of Homeland Security at:  https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2021/12/10/2021-26691/identifying-recommendations-to-support-the-work-of-the-interagency-task-force-on-the-reunification

Paragraphs 181 and 182 of the U.N Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (Geneva, January 1992) can be found at: https://www.unhcr.org/4d93528a9.pdf

The Supreme Court found that the Handbook provides “significant guidance” in INS v. Cardozo-Fonseca, 480 U.S. 420, 439, fn. 22 (1987).

The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights can be found at: https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/.  (Adopted December 10, 1948)

The Convention on the Rights of the Child can be found at:  https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx (Adopted November 20, 1989).

For a discussion of how United States asylum policies have fallen short of the protections of the CRC, see Craig B. Mousin, “Rights Disappear When US Policy Engages Children as Weapons of Deterrence,” (January 1, 2019), AMA Journal of Ethics, Vol. 21, Number 1: E58-66, Available on SSRN at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3317913

The National Immigrant Justice Center has several resources providing ideas that would end or minimize family separation.  You can find the letter it submitted to DHS at:  https://immigrantjustice.org/sites/default/files/uploaded-files/no-content-type/2022-01/Family-separation-policies-NIJC-comment-2022-01-19.pdf

This NIJC blog provides short summaries of issues of concern:  https://immigrantjustice.org/staff/blog/biden-administration-routinely-separates-immigrant-families.

NIJC also prepared this short video on family separation:  https://www.linkedin.com/feed/update/urn:li:ugcPost:6889620108780584960/

The Detention Watch Network provides several resources to more fully understand the extent of immigration detention as the United States has established over 200 locations throughout the nation.  See, for example, “Immigration Detention 101,” at: https://www.detentionwatchnetwork.org/issues/detention-101

or “Communities Not Cages,  A Just Transition from Immigration Detention Economies, (2021) at: https://www.detentionwatchnetwork.org/sites/default/files/reports/Communities%20Not%20Cages-A%20Just%20Transition%20from%20Immigration%20Detention%20Economies_DWN%202021.pdf

Need more information?  Church World Service’s Immigration and Refugee Advocacy Program invites you to a Families Belong Together program on Monday, January 24 at 7 p.m. (EST).  You may register for more information at:  RSVP here.  Speakers will share their expertise about the latest updates in immigration policy and the ongoing horrors of family separation.

Thank you for joining this effort to meet the Task Force’s goal “to ensure that the Federal Government will not repeat the policies and practices leading to the separation of families at the border.”   Please share this podcast’s request with others to lend their voice to ending these tragic policies and practices.

Lawful Assembly Podcast: As Maine Goes, So Goes the Nation

This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University’s College of Law, Refugee and Forced Migrations Studies Program and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy.  The podcast celebrates the cooperative work of Somali refugee farmers in Maine and elsewhere demonstrating the talents and gifts they bring to our nation.  The podcast also urges listeners to email their congressional Representative to vote for the Afghan Adjustment Act.

ACTION STEP:  We provide two links to offer background information and to email your congressional Representative to vote for the Afghan Adjustment Act.

  1. Refugee One recommends this link to email your Representative in support of the Afghan Adjustment Act:        https://humanrightsfirst.quorum.us/campaign/36088/

If you would like additional information about the proposed Act or the work of Refugee One, visit Refugee One’s website at: https://www.refugeeone.org/afghanistan.html

  1. The Pennsylvania Council of Churches also provides background information and a link to send an email to your Representative at: https://pachurchesadvocacy.org/pass-afghan-adjustment-act/

The information on Little Juba and the Agrarian Trust came from two articles.  Initially, this podcast was inspired by Katy Kelleher’s article, “Maine’s Somali Bantus Are Reenvisioning American Farming,” Down East:  https://downeast.com/features/maines-somali-bantus-are-reenvisioning-american-farming/  The article contains the specific information on percentage of farmland owned by white famers and non-white farmers, information on the Somali produce grown at Little Juba, and the Agrarian Trust.
The quote from the Somali farmer and the quote on percentage of farm ownership by white persons can be found in the story on the Somali refugees at Little Juba by Audrea Lim, “‘We’re trying to re-create the lives we had’: the Somali migrants who became Maine farmers,” The Guardian,February 25, 2021: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/feb/25/somali-farmers-maine

For more information on the Agrarian Trust, see:  https://agrariantrust.org

Information on Portland, Maine’s services and hospitality to asylum seekers and refugees comes from Eric Russell, “We bring our dreams with us.  All of us,” Portland Press Herald, November 14, 2021:  https://www.pressherald.com/2021/11/14/we-bring-our-dreams-with-us-all-of-us/

The Center for American Progress Report contains the information from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the quote on immigrants breathing “fresh life” into rural areas as well as the information about Arcola, Illinois including the statistics on the Hispanic population of Arcola.  It also provides the statistics regarding United States rural population from the U.S. Department of Agriculture:  “Revival and Opportunity, Immigrants in Rural American,” September 2, 2018:  https://www.americanprogress.org/article/revival-and-opportunity/

Information on the New Roots community farms sponsored by the International Rescue Committee can be found in “How refugee farmers are confronting food insecurity in the U.S.” October 14, 2021: https://www.rescue.org/article/how-refugee-farmers-are-confronting-food-insecurity-us


Episode 19: Expedite at What Cost?

This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University’s College of Law, Refugee and Forced Migrations Studies Program and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy.  The podcast requests listeners to file comments opposing DHS and DOJ proposed regulations governing Credible Fear Screening by Asylum Officers.

ACTION STEP: You can file comments opposing part of or all of the proposed regulations before 11:59 p.m. EDT, Tuesday October 19.  CLINIC, the Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc., has provided a sample template that provides instructions and helpful arguments to prepare and then submit your comments.  https://uchastings.app.box.com/s/qxj0pz0e7ehn8a1yontxz7gwvddad3ng

If you are unable to meet this Tuesday’s deadline, please consider corresponding with the White House and your Senators and Representative to oppose these proposed regulations.  The template offers sample language you might find helpful in communicating with elected representatives.

These proposed regulations, in the alleged name of effectiveness, efficiency, and streamlining, may preclude many deserving asylum seekers from obtaining a full and fair hearing before an Immigration Judge, and therefore, be denied asylum and other remedies.  DHS and DOJ have invited members of the public to comment on the proposals.  The template above offers a relatively simple way to respond.  The template provides significant information and resources on the failings of the proposed regulations.  You can submit your comments and also view the proposed regulations and explanation at:  https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2021/08/20/2021-17779/procedures-for-credible-fear-screening-and-consideration-of-asylum-withholding-of-removal-and-cat#open-comment

You may find more information on the proposed regulations in a summary by the Center for Gender and Refugee Studies at:   https://uchastings.app.box.com/s/651zlybechnqq4ktk5rllihkybih9mx0

Jeffrey Chase’s quote comes from his blog, “The Need for Full-Fledged Asylum Hearings,” October 6, 2021 at: https://www.jeffreyschase.com/blog/2021/10/6/the-need-for-full-fledged-asylum-hearings

The $15 million-dollar contract with the GEO Group is cited in Rafael Bernal, “US Faces Daunting Task in Relationship with Haiti,” October 10, 2021 at:


More information on how private for-profit detention corporations undermine our nation’s commitment to access to attorneys, due process, and commitments made to asylum seekers can be found at:    Statement of the National Immigrant Justice Center (NIJC) U.S. House Committee on Homeland Security Hearing Subcommittee on Border Security, Facilitation & Operations Oversight of ICE Detention Facilities: Examining ICE Contractors’ Response to COVID-19 July 13, 2020, https://immigrantjustice.org/sites/default/files/content-type/commentary-item/documents/2020-07/NIJCStatement_HouseHomelandSecurityCommitteeHearing_2020-07-13.pdf

More information on tent courts and the difficulty attorneys face in meeting with clients to prepare cases can be found at, Mousin, Craig B., Health Inequity and Tent Court Injustice (February 1, 2021). AMA J Ethics. 2021;23(2):E132-139, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3777549


Lawful Assembly Episode 18: Fear of Freedom

This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University College of Law and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy.  The podcast contends that United States discrimination against Haitians over the last two centuries has created a moral obligation to Haiti and its residents.  Most recently, efforts to swiftly deport Haitians, contrary to the Refugee Act’s non-return requirement, reveals how efforts to restrict Haitian asylum-seekers over the last forty years has contributed to the continual denigration of asylum protections under the Refuge Act of 1980.

ACTION STEP:  The United Church of Christ offers you a way to promptly inform your representatives that deportations to Haiti must cease at:  https://p2a.co/MnT2c4m

A petition to stop Haitian deportations:


For additional information on the history of United States responses to Haiti and Haitian asylum seekers, Azadeh Erfani of  the National Immigrant Justice Center’s writes:  “President Biden, It is Past Time to Protect Haitian Asylum Seekers, at:  https://immigrantjustice.org/staff/blog/president-biden-it-past-time-protect-haitian-asylum-seekers

An American Immigration Council report on Haiti can be found at: Aaron Reichlin-Melnick, “Del Rio Migrant Camp Shows How Biden Administration Is Not Living Up to Its Promises” at:


See also, Raymond Joseph, former envoy of Haiti to Washington, “Haiti Cries Out: Where is President Biden, as My Countrymen Swelter Under a Bridge in Texas,” https://www.nysun.com/foreign/haiti-cries-out-where-is-president-biden-as-my/91660/

Former Justice Harry A. Blackmun’s quote from his dissent is at page 208 in Sale v. Haitian Centers Council, 509 U.S. 155, (1993).  His other quotes in the podcast are from his law review article, “The Supreme Court and the Law of Nations,” 104 Yale L.J. 39, 44 (1994). (https://www.jstor.org/stable/796983).

Professor Peniel Joseph’s quote can be found at: “This Is the Story of Haiti That Matters Most,” (August 20, 2021) at: https://www.cnn.com/2021/08/20/opinions/haiti-earthquake-flooding-assassination-revolution-joseph/index.html

Professor Annette Gordon-Reed’s quote can be found at:  “We Owe Haiti A Debt We Can’t Repay,” (July 21, 2021) at:  https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/21/opinion/haiti-us-history.html

Episode 17: Leave the Campsite Cleaner

This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University College of Law and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy.  The podcast celebrates the decision by Dynegy Midwest Generation to enter into a settlement agreement with the State of Illinois to remove 3.3 million cubic yards of coal ash from its current location adjacent to the Middle Fork of the Vermillion River.  Illinois’s only National Scenic River, the Middle Fork, offers one of the most diverse habitats for animals and plants in Illinois, but remains threatened by erosion of the river bank near the coal ash pits.  The coal ash will now be removed, in part, through successful collaboration from environmental groups and citizen advocacy, including:

Eco-Justice Collaborative, (https://ecojusticecollaborative.org/),

PrairieRiversNetworks (https://prairierivers.org/dynegy-vermilion-middle-fork/)

EarthJustice’s coal ash program (https://earthjustice.org/about/offices/coal).

You may also find photos of the river and its exposed river bank on those websites.  You may also help ensure implementation of the settlement agreement.  You can find action steps and options on their respective websites.

The United Nations has established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to assess the science related to climate change.  On August 6, 2021, it issued its most recent report including the findings mentioned in the beginning of the podcast.  You can find this report at:  https://www.ipcc.ch/report/sixth-assessment-report-working-group-i/

For an example of a current lawful assembly engaged in protecting water against an oil pipeline, all are invited to join the Treaty People Walk for Water.  Starting on August 7, water protectors are walking from the headwaters of the Mississippi River to the Minnesota State Capitol Building by August 25.  For more information, see:  https://docs.google.com/document/d/16nD-olTOZndvdIi8KIRAW0i-tYAXWUcRfa9nSHir0fI/edit or you may find more information about the Indigenous Environmental Network at:     https://www.ienearth.org/?fbclid=IwAR1nr1jQM0dBW82GY8UvXSp8Gnmr9pfKmFIvA9PjGy5dL7MXiXgIzfzpqyk

Lawful Assembly Episode 16: Posterity

This is an interview with Rev. Craig B. Mousin, an Adjunct Faculty member of the DePaul University College of Law and the Grace School of Applied Diplomacy.  This podcast argues that the Preamble to the Constitution invites you to add your voice to protecting and expanding voting rights to ensure the nation’s promise of equality for all.  Since the Civil War, our nation has amended the United States Constitution at least once every fifty years to expand voting rights to persons previously excluded.  The summer of 2021 marks fifty years since the 26th Amendment lowered the voting age to 18.  Today, however, we face, renewed efforts to restrict voting rights through reluctance in Congress or state legislation making it more difficult to register and vote.  It is time to assemble with others to protect and expand voting rights through local and national action.

You can read the Constitution at: https://constitution.congress.gov/constitution/

Citations to Professor Akhil Amar are from his book, America’s Constitution, A Biography, (Random House, NY, 2005), (states waiving restrictions, thus expanding the number of persons eligible to participate in the state ratification process of the Constitution: 7) (no amendment has restricted voting rights: 19) (union not a league or confederacy: 33) (immigrant signers of the Declaration of Independence and members of the First Congress and First Supreme Court: 164).  Information on the efforts to repeal state anti-black laws in the 19th Century can be found in Kate Masur, Until Justice Be Done, America’s First Civil Rights Movement, From the Revolution to Reconstruction, (W.W. Norton & Company, N.Y., 2021) (black laws defined: 16-19) (William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass, 237-238).  For more information on Group Action for Peace, see: Robert Armbruster, “‘Working Within the System’ Youths Press for Registration,” (The Record, August 24, 1970).

To find additional information on the Helen C. Peirce School for International Studies, see:  http://peirce.cps.edu

For information on one historical assembly to protect the rights of freed black Chicagoans prior to the Civil War, see Craig B. Mousin, “A Clear View from the Prairie: Harold Washington and the People of Illinois Respond to Federal Encroachment of Human Rights,” 29 S. Ill. L. J. 285 (Fall, 2004/Winter, 2005), 209-304.  https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2997657

For a current example of urging Congress to provide the DACA students with a path to citizenship, over 500 college and university Presidents and Chancellors recently called upon Congress to legislate a “permanent roadmap to citizenship for undocumented youth and students.” see: https://www.presidentsalliance.org/press/statement-hanen-daca-decision-2021/

In addition to DACA recipients, John Washington on Lationo USA reports about a proposed New York City bill that would expand the right to vote in municipal elections to non-citizen residents.  You can find his story at: https://www.latinousa.org/2021/07/30/immigrantvoters/

#Preamble #moreperfectunion #ourposterity #votingrights #USConstitution #DREAMERS #DACA